State-of-the-art sub 20 nm Fresnel zone plate (FZP) optics for X-ray focusing and microscopy applications, including phase contrast, ptychography, and general imaging in both soft and hard X-Ray regimes. Our zone plates are used in beamlines throughout the world utilizing traditional STXM (Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy), Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM), as well as methods including ptychography and phase contrast imaging.
SEM Image of hard X-Ray 25 nm resolution zone plate
|Utilization of different metals (gold or nickel) allows for increased efficiency over a range of energies. Image generated from the ANT zone plate software.|
|High resolution zone plates provide highest resolution and efficiency over a large range of energies. With 18 nm (Δr) resolution zone plate offers high resolution along with above 20% efficiency in the water window. Image of 18 nm Au FZP with 270 µm diameter and central stop design.|
|Applied Nanotool’s zone plates can be used for various applications including ptychography with large diameters and <1 nm stitching errors across several millimeters. Image of ~0.85 mm diameter zone plate.|
|High phase contrast imaging for hard X-ray applications with resolution 50 nm and below. Uniformity across the zones is a critical component for high phase contrast imaging.|
Soft X-Ray Specification
X-rays below 5 keV (<~0.25 nm) are typically classified as soft X-rays, where they are more readily absorbed than higher energy X-rays. Typically, zone plates do not require the same thickness for efficiency and allow for higher resolution imaging.
A range of zone plate options for soft/tender X-Rays are available for specific requirements.
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|Device||Outer Zone Width ΔRn (nm)||Thickness (µm)||Outer Diameter (µm)||(# of zones) E/ΔE Limit||~ Focal Length (µm)||Estimated Lead Time|
|NZP-50um-12nm||12||0.05 + 0.01||50||1059||144||Please Contact|
|TZP‑160um‑50nm||50||<0.75||160||801||1934||2 – 3|
|TZP‑750um‑200nm||200||<0.75||750||938||36292||1 – 3|
|*For estimated efficiency of zone plate, please see generated graphs below or download our zone plate software.|
Hard X-Ray Specification
X-Rays above 5-10 keV transition from tender to hard X-Rays where they are better able to penetrate through samples to give better imaging. Hard X-ray Fresnel zone plates require high aspect ratio features to offer sufficient efficiency and resolution for energies above 5 keV. Our current optics give ultra-high resolution for sub 25 nm – 100 nm imaging depending on the required energy. Stacking of hard X-rays (either through double processing or chip alignment) can significantly increase the efficiency of our devices.
A range of zone plate options for hard X-Rays are available for specific requirements.
|Device||Outer Zone Width ΔRn (nm)||Thickness (µm)||Outer Diameter (µm)||(# of zones) E/ΔE Limit||Energy Range (keV)||Estimated Lead Time (months)|
|HZP-50-25nm||25||>0.65||50||500||1.5 to 10||2 – 3|
|HZP-75-25nm||75||750||2 – 3|
|HZP‑100um‑42.5nm||42.5||>0.8||100||588||2 to 12||2 – 3|
|HZP‑85um‑50nm||50||>0.9||85||425||2 to 12||2 – 3|
|HZPX‑85um‑50nm||>1.7||5.5 to 20||4 – 6|
|HZP‑180um‑50nm||>0.9||180||900||2 to 12||2 – 3|
|HZP‑550um‑50nm||>0.9||550||2750||2 to 12||2 – 3|
|HZPX‑550um‑50nm||>1.5||5.5 to 20||4 – 6|
|HZP-400um-100nm||100||>1.2||400||1000||2.5 to 8||2 – 3|
|HZPX‑400um‑100nm||>2.6||8 to 30||4 – 6|
|HZP‑400um‑120nm||120||>1.5||400||834||5 to 25||2 – 3|
|HZPX‑400um‑120nm||>2.6||8 to 30||4 – 5|
|HZP‑750um‑200nm||200||>2.2||750||938||7 to 20||3 – 4|
|HZPX‑750um‑200nm||200||>3.6||12 to 50||4 – 5|
|*For estimated efficiency of zone plate, please see generated graphs below or download our zone plate software. All zone plate diameters can be customized for specific setups. Standard frame sizes are 3 mm x 3 mm with SiN membranes (100 nm).|
Oxide Interlock Process for Hard X-Ray Optics
Zone plate efficiency for binary zone plates requires high aspect ratio structures which can survive high flux imaging systems. The “Oxide Interlock” option creates small interconnecting channels between metal zone of silicon dioxide which is transparent to hard X-rays and does not swell or distort, even when not under vacuum. These have been shown to significantly increase the zone plate efficiency and lifetime.
Central stop and outer blocker options significantly improve zone plate imaging, with reduction of the 0th order and improved lifetime of the optics. Various Thicknesses up to 3 µm on chip are available or >10 µm as a separate chip.
Custom Designs and Frame Sizes
Custom designs and frame sizes can be developed for specific applications. We are able to fabricate devices down to 0.1 mm and below. Our standard frame sizes are 5 mm x 5 mm and membrane thickness can be down to 50 nm while the 100 nm thickness is ideal for energies above 5 keV. We also offer silicon carbide membranes for those requiring long-lifetime membranes.
Zone Plate Calculator
Applied Nanotools offers a free online zone plate calculating theoretical efficiencies and for calculating Fresnel zone plates parameters. Please see this link to visit the webpage: Zone Plate Calculator. For the legacy software please download here (note, this version is being replaced with the new website version).